• What is the difference between unreasonable force and excessive force?
• If nonlethal weapons are more prevalent, why isn’t the use of lethal force diminishing?
• Why do agencies with the strictest policies for using canines frequently have higher dog bite ratios than others?
• What is the difference between 1st and 2nd order effects regarding injuries from nonlethal weapons, and why should it matter?
Most of these questions originated with students attending the U.S. military war colleges, where the author has taught nonlethal force for more than two decades. This short and tightly focused book examines the knowledge, experience, planning, and decision-making necessary to safely and effectively use nonlethal force. It provides strong, and even irrefutable, arguments and describes the challenges and explains the rationale for why one option is preferred over another. Hence, this is not so much a “how-to” book as a “why” book. Sid Heal has substantial personal experience in using, developing, defending, and teaching the many facets of nonlethal force and writes in the first-person not as a scholar to a student but rather “peer to peer.” The book is written for people with “skin in the game,” who personally suffer the consequences of mistakes and misfortune. Readers can expect trenchant and frank answers. Extensive endnotes for teachers, consultants, and those more scientifically inclined are provided for reference and further research.